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Great Freedom Fighters of The 21TH Century Part 2

By Sicebise Msengana








Amílcar  Cabral  ( 12 September 1924 – 20 January 1973),  was born in Bafatá, Guinea. He was born to parents, Juvenal Cabral, a Cape Verdean elementary school teacher and Mrs. Iva Pinhel Évora, a shopkeeper. Guinea-Bissau, the small Portuguese colony suffered from exploitation imposed by the backward and despotic Portuguese colonial regime.  Cabral later wrote:
Faced with the power of the main imperialist nations, one is forced to wonder how it was possible for Portugal, an underdeveloped and backward country, to retain its colonies in spite of the redistribution to which the world was subjected. Portuguese colonialism managed to survive despite the sharing-out of Africa made by the imperialist powers at the end of the 19th century because England supported the ambitions of Portugal which, since the treaty of Metwen in 1703 had become a semi-colony of England. England had every interest in using the Portuguese colonies, not only to exploit their economic resources, but also to occupy them as support bases on the route to the Orient, and thus to maintain absolute domination in the Indian Ocean. To counter the greed of the other colonialist powers and to defend its interests in the Portuguese colonies, England found the best solution: it defended the 'rights' of its semi-colony.
After the death of his godmother, Simoa, his father, Juvenal inherited a few tracts of land and moves in the island of Cape Verde with his family. In the 1940s, a severe drought causes widespread starvation, claiming more than 50,000 Cape Verdeans. Chicken bones describes the details of the boy’s life, “This is the atmosphere in which Amílcar Cabral spends his early childhood and adolescent years. If, on one hand, his father gives the example of public conscience and civic engagement, within the limits permitted by Salazar’s fascism, his mother, Iva Évora, on the other, is for young Amílcar an example of love and affection, of family protection and of dedication to her work. Iva labors all day on a sewing machine to help the family overcome, as well as possible, the many crises they have to face. Later in addition to her activities as a seamstress, she gets a job a in a fish-packing factory. Amílcar’s mother and her capacity for self-sacrifice will serve as an example which he will pass to the young militants of the PAIGC.”
He was educated at Mindelo, Cape Verde, and later at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia , in Lisbon, where he founded student movements promoting the cause of liberation for Portuguese colonies across Africa. Cabral completed his training as an agronomist in 1951 and returned to Africa in 1952. 

Describing his yearning for Guinea, “This was done following a plan, an objective, based on the idea of doing something, of contributing to the betterment of the people, to fight against the Portuguese. That’s what I have done since the day I arrived in Guinea." Between  1953 and 1954, Cabral conducted an agricultural survey or census of the colony. The knowledge from the survey helped him better understand the problems facing his country. He and Aristides Pereira, Julio de Almeida, Elisée Turpin, Fernando Fortes, and Luiz Cabral (Amílcar Cabral's half-brother) founded the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde) or African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde and Guinea (PAIGC). The party was responsible for radical change that swept through the country. In the late 50’s and 60’s, the PAIGC fought in a warfare for liberation. By 1969 the PAIGC had two-thirds of the country under its control. They established schools, medical clinics, and courts, as well as People's stores, in these areas. 

Tragically, like all freedom fighters his life came to an end in January 20, 1973, at the hands of Portuguese colonial masters and its puppets. Amílcar is best remembered by his classmates and friends as a person of hard work ethic, a great sense of humour, and ability to make friends.
Writings:

Steve Biko(18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977), is remembered for his role in fighting apartheid. Best known for the “Black Conscious Movement” and slogans like “Black is beautiful.” The boy was born to parents Mzingayi Mathew and Alice 'Mamcete' Biko in Ginsberg Township , in the present-day Eastern Cape province of South Africa. He attended Brownlee Primary School and Charles Morgan Higher Primary School. Later attended the Lovedale High School in 1964, but was soon expelled for his political views. His brother, Khaya said concerning Biko ‘‘Steve was expelled for absolutely no reason at all. But in retrospect I welcome the South African government’s gesture of exposing a really good politician. I had unsuccessfully tried to get Steve interested in politics. The police were able to do in one day what had eluded me for years. This time the great giant was awakened.”

Biko was a bright student and passed with very great grades. He was admitted to Durban Medical School at the University of Natal Non European section (UNNE) in 1966. During that time he helped found the South African Students' Organisation (SASO), which later became the “Black Consciousness Movement.” The BCM aims of the organisation was to install a sense of self- determination through community-upliftment projects.  In 1972, he was expelled for his political activity. The following year he was banned by the apartheid regime. In the following years he met Donald Woods , the editor of Daily Dispatch and became best friends.  In 1975 Steve was arrested and detained for approximately 137 days. However,  he was not charged or put on trial. Around 12 September 1977, Biko was reported dead. According to several accounts, he stripped naked and viciously beaten and sustained serious head injuries. South African History Online: “Lang did not object when police said they were driving Steve to Pretoria, 700km away. This they did, on 11 September, in the back of a van, with Steve still naked, frothing at the mouth, and unable to speak. In Pretoria, a district surgeon examined Steve and tended to him, but it was too late.” 

Writings:

Steve Biko was one of the greatest anti-apartheid activists who was on a mission to liberate both the mind and body of an African. Yet, he ended up dead for simply resisting the Nazikaner government. We might have lost him, but his words and actions are still visible in our lives. After waging a hard and brutal battle. With this, we release Biko to rest. 

References
1. ChickenBones: A Journal. “Amilcar Cabral.” http://www.nathanielturner.com/amilcarcabral.htm (last accessed 20 July 2016). 

2. South African History Online.  “Stephen Biko.”http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/stephen-bantu-biko ( last accessed 25 July 2016). 




Great Freedom Fighters of The 21TH Century Part 2

By Sicebise Msengana








Amílcar  Cabral  ( 12 September 1924 – 20 January 1973),  was born in Bafatá, Guinea. He was born to parents, Juvenal Cabral, a Cape Verdean elementary school teacher and Mrs. Iva Pinhel Évora, a shopkeeper. Guinea-Bissau, the small Portuguese colony suffered from exploitation imposed by the backward and despotic Portuguese colonial regime.  Cabral later wrote:

Great Freedom Fighters of The 21TH Century Part I

By Sicebise Msengana
www.softwareabyss.net



















Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), was an African-American activist and outspoken public voice of the Civil Rights Movements in the 60's. He lost his father to white savages. It was not clear who was responsible for cowardly attack but rumors that white racists were responsible for his father's death were widely circulated. He shot to fame when he was featured in a 1959 New York City television broadcast about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced. For the next years, Louise, his mother struggled to support the family.  In late 1938 she had a nervous breakdown and was admitted in a mental hospital. 


After dropping out of school, he began dealing in drugs, robbery and burglary. Malcolm was released from prison for serving six years. Later, he became the minister of Temple No. 7 in Harlem, there he began to talk about Black Nationalism and self-defense. On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam.  After his pilgrimage to Mecca, he visited a several African countries such as Nigeria, Sudan, Egypt and Ghana. His trip to Africa heavily influenced his views on many things including revolution and group economics.


As he was preparing to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity gunmen entered and fatally shot in February 1965. Toady he is a symbol of African militancy, power and bravery. Through his hard work, courage and passion, the sacrifices has paid off liberating millions of people across America and the African continent. He is best remembered by his famous slogan "By any means necessary."


Nelson Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid regime and politician. He was born in the village of Mvezo in Umtata. He attended Clarkebury Methodist High School, Engcobo and went to  Healdtown. Later, he attended the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand, where he studied law. In the 40's, he joined in the ANC and rose into prominence in the 50's after the  ANC's 1952 anti-apartheid Defiance Campaign. Despite the propaganda sponsored by the CIA, he was largely a peaceful man. Mandela was never a "hate" teacher  and "terrorist."  he said in the 1964 interview: "There are thousands of people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and non-violence — against a government whose only reply is savage attacks on an unarmed and defenseless people. And I think the time has come for us to consider, in the light of our experiences at this day at home, whether the methods which we have applied so far are adequate." 

 Mandela shared liberal views on economics and national liberation just like Gandhi and Martin Luther King. After many unsuccessful attempts at beg and "nonviolent protests, he was frustrated at white response. The Nazikaner (Afrikaner sponsored racism) government wasn't willing to give or share power. In the 1964 he was arrested and and sentenced to 27 years along his co-accused comrades. He was released in the late 80's and led the transition to a democratic South Africa. In 1994, he won with a landslide majority and became the first African president in South African history. In December 2013 he sadly passed away and many people around the globe mourned his passing. 



It's important to to bring into light  other aspects of his life that perhaps were not so heroic.  We have to seen the widespread of unemployment, corruption and crime. Some problems in South Africa illuminate from the failure of dismantling white supremacy, also known as apartheid.  Mandela's legacy has facilitated the continuation of the exploitation ( neo-apartheid) of the African soul using an African face. "He was at the end of his life also a bitter old man, well aware how his very political triumph and his elevation into a universal hero was the mask of a bitter defeat. His universal glory is also a sign that he really didn't disturb the globe order of power," added Slavoj Zizek. 


Martin Luther King (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) an African-American Baptist minister and activist who was a leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movements in the 60'S. Born to  Reverend Martin Luther King Sr., and Alberta Williams King. He attended Booker T. Washington High School and soon was known for his public speaking skills. After winning an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks Club, he was order to give up his seat for white passengers on a returning bus. He enrolled in   Morehouse College and graduated a B.A. degree in sociology. He later enrolled in  Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester. His doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University earned him a Ph.D.  

 Montgomery bus boycott was one of the turning points in Dr. King's life.  Southern Christian Leadership Conference was founded by King, and other civil rights leaders. Martin Luther King was known as leader for leading the masses, touring across the U.S and around the world, giving lectures on nonviolent protest and civil rights. His stances on "nonviolent" principles was influenced by his Christian faith and Gandhi. By the way, " nonviolent" protests never worked. Even Gandhi was wrong on nonviolence. Violence has a place in the world, if the enemy doesn't want to give or share power. Among his marches, the March on Washington still remains as one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history. He delivered the famous "I Have a Dream" speech. the famous passageI say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.'I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.I have a dream today.I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.I have a dream today.

Martin Luther King like Malcolm X were targeted by the U.S government. A congressional investigation described the FBI's campaign against King as "one of the most abusive of all FBI programs."  His activism caught up with him in his last days. On  April 4, 1968 at the Lorraine Motel, he shot in the face. The last words of the  Baptist minister were "Precious Lord, Take My Hand." His death is the statement of the triumph of human spirit. He fought and won his battle. We don't have to agree with his liberal views on self-defense and African nationalism.  The F.B.I papers revealed the following about Dr. King: Prevent the RISE OF A "MESSIAH" who could unify, and electrify, the militant black nationalist movement. Malcolm X might have been such a "messiah;" he is the martyr of the movement today. Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael and Elijah Muhammed all aspire to this position. Elijah Muhammed is less of a threat because of his age. King could be a very real contender for this position should he abandon his supposed "obedience" to "white, liberal doctrines" (nonviolence) and embrace black nationalism. Carmichael has the necessary charisma to be a real threat in this way." 

The lives of these heroes inspired millions of people into taking action, and fighting for their rights. 


Great Freedom Fighters of The 21TH Century Part I

By Sicebise Msengana
www.softwareabyss.net



















Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), was an African-American activist and outspoken public voice of the Civil Rights Movements in the 60's. He lost his father to white savages. It was not clear who was responsible for cowardly attack but rumors that white racists were responsible for his father's death were widely circulated. He shot to fame when he was featured in a 1959 New York City television broadcast about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced. For the next years, Louise, his mother struggled to support the family.  In late 1938 she had a nervous breakdown and was admitted in a mental hospital. 

Make a Difference

By Sicebise Msengana

javesca.com
















There are eternal optimists who will lie in your face and tell you what you want to hear. Modern humans first appeared around 200,000 years ago.  Much time is spent on discussing ways to ‘help’ the world but no real help is ever sent. Minorities groups like Native Americans, atheists, pygmies, albinos, San, Australian aborigines, homosexuals, women and children ( mostly girls) are still oppressed. Religious and political leaders are given right to preach hate, intolerance and the need to rid the world of non-believers. Why there is no public outrage? Simply because we use different strokes for different people. Nation against nation fighting, each other for dominance—on land, air and sea. Tribe against tribe. Widespread terrorism, mass rape, massacres and wars raging all around the globe. We are the only species that boasts about taking man to the space. Yet we cannot living peace in earth.


The species that boasts about an increase in the number of billionaires, we have yet to end extreme poverty and hunger that affects much of the world.  We talk about space mining yet we cannot even share earth’s resources equally between ourselves. The species that goes around saying, “I’m civilized”, yet its fellow human beings are still in chains of bondage and slavery. We claim to know God yet our lives tell a different story. By assuming that we have learnt valuable lessons from history didn’t change the response of people. We are quick to kill, judge and enslave our fellow human beings in spite of the values we claim to cherish. We abandon the same values that made us the people we are today.

Of course, there are few rare individuals who are humanity’s hope for a brighter future. Men and women who are good in spite of their circumstances. People who know for good and justice to strive means comfort zones are disturbed. Changing the world is collective effort that requires all of us to take a stand against these horrors that we see every day. The walls we erect, thinking are meant to protect us, isolate us. Calm co-existence will only come when we come to our senses as global citizens; there is safety in numbers. Rediscovering the basic principles—the Golden rule and Ubuntu brings light and hope to this depressing picture. This universal code is embedded in every religion and humanistic institution. The Golden rule simply means: One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself. Imagine what if we followed the rule. The short answer is peace and security. Ubuntu means humanity towards others. Now imagine if we showed humanity toward our fellow human being. The first answer is increased happiness and feeling good about ourselves. The second answer is a need for understanding, recognition and appreciation of human life -- a life that's sacred.

The world doesn’t need to be perfect in order to good. Perfect peace and health are pipeline dreams that should not be pursued. What we should fight for is goodness. In fact, life is too short to waste on unproductive goals that undermine the current achievements under our belt.  We need to set aside these fantasies and use our minds to improve conditions in this world.  We are not as powerless like a thousand of years ago because we now have the tools to start a revolution that will help guide us. The spirit of brotherhood should guide our thoughts and actions.

Make a Difference

By Sicebise Msengana

javesca.com
















There are eternal optimists who will lie in your face and tell you what you want to hear. Modern humans first appeared around 200,000 years ago.  Much time is spent on discussing ways to ‘help’ the world but no real help is ever sent. Minorities groups like Native Americans, atheists, pygmies, albinos, San, Australian aborigines, homosexuals, women and children ( mostly girls) are still oppressed. Religious and political leaders are given right to preach hate, intolerance and the need to rid the world of non-believers. Why there is no public outrage? Simply because we use different strokes for different people. Nation against nation fighting, each other for dominance—on land, air and sea. Tribe against tribe. Widespread terrorism, mass rape, massacres and wars raging all around the globe. We are the only species that boasts about taking man to the space. Yet we cannot living peace in earth.

Remembering Nelson Mandela

By Sicebise Msengana
















"I am not a saint, unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying." -Nelson Mandela

I admired him not only for  success in his political career, but also because of his work ethic and courage.

Nelson Mandela was a man who dedicated himself in fighting apartheid. Things didn't have to be this way, but he sacrificed 67 years of his life in service to his people. After the so-called "peaceful" transition to a democratic South Africa,  20 years of power, and the majority of African South Africans are still poor, while whites have  gained significantly from the deal we made with the devil.
  Gillian Schutte writes "the transitional system of reconciliation, which seemed only to benefit white folk – coupled with the implementation of a business-biased macroeconomic policy – whites have continued to benefit hugely from the system. Economic studies have shown that many whites have in fact grown richer in the past 20 years – while the majority of blacks and smaller pockets of whites and minority groups have just grown poorer..."

It's important to to bring into light  other aspects of his life that perhaps were not so heroic.  We have to seen the widespread of unemployment, corruption and crime. Some problems in South Africa illuminate from the failure of dismantling white supremacy, also known as apartheid.  Mandela's legacy has facilitated the continuation of the exploitation ( neo-apartheid) of the African soul using an African face. "He was at the end of his life also a bitter old man, well aware how his very political triumph and his elevation into a universal hero was the mask of a bitter defeat. His universal glory is also a sign that he really didn't disturb the globe order of power," added Slavoj Zizek.

However, one mistake don't outweigh many good deeds, regardless of how bad it is. Mandela's good acts still remain as an example of good leadership. He went to prison for his convictions and spent 27 years, for his beliefs. Not everyone has the courage to do what Madiba did. People are good at talking but nobody can walk the talk. The future of African leadership depends on us young people. It's us who should change the course. Setting our own path. But the message has to clear and uncompromising!

These people who are telling us Africans, to love or be "nonviolent" towards our enemies or wait for freedom in some distant future are teaching criminal philosophies. We should do our best to ignore them. Africans wherever and whenever they're provoked should fight back.

Africans, in my opinion, should fight for justice even if it means breaking the enemy's necks.

Remembering Nelson Mandela

By Sicebise Msengana
















"I am not a saint, unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying." -Nelson Mandela

I admired him not only for  success in his political career, but also because of his work ethic and courage.

Nelson Mandela was a man who dedicated himself in fighting apartheid. Things didn't have to be this way, but he sacrificed 67 years of his life in service to his people. After the so-called "peaceful" transition to a democratic South Africa,  20 years of power, and the majority of African South Africans are still poor, while whites have  gained significantly from the deal we made with the devil.

The Lion and Mouse

By Sicebise Msengana






Let us enjoy reading this story of The Lion and The Mouse .
A lion was sleeping in a forest. A mouse started playing on it. The
lion was disturbed and arose from his sleep. It caught up the mouse
angrily and tried to crush it to death.
Then the mouse prayed the lion to leave him off and assured that it
would help him when it needed. The lion laughed at it and let him
off.
One day the lion was caught in a net spread by a hunter. It roared
and tried to escape but in vain. The mouse heared the lion's roaring
and came there. It started cutting the net with its teeth. The lion escaped and thanked the mouse.
MORAL : Everything has its own value.

The False Human Belief

By Sicebise Msengana
Wikipedia. com













As a man was passing the elephants, he suddenly stopped, confused by the fact that these huge creatures were being held by only a small rope tied to their front leg. No chains, no cages.
 It was obvious that the elephants could, at anytime can break away from their bonds but for some reason, they did not.

Confessions of Nat Turner

By Sicebise Msengana






















THE
CONFESSIONS
OF NAT TURNER, THE LEADER OF THE LATE
INSURRECTION IN SOUTH HAMPTON, VA.



As fully and voluntarily made to
THOMAS R. GRAY
In the prison where he was confined, and acknowledged by
him to be such when read before the Court of Southampton;
with the certificate, under seal of
the Court convened at Jerusalem,
Nov. 5, 1831, for his trial.
ALSO, AN AUTHENTIC
ACCOUNT OF THE WHOLE INSURRECTION,
WITH LISTS OF THE WHITES WHO WERE MURDERED,
AND OF THE NEGROES BROUGHT BEFORE THE COURT OF
SOUTHHAMPTON, AND THERE SENTENCED, &c.

Baltimore:
PUBLISHED BY THOMAS R. GRAY.
Lucas & Deaver, print.
1831.



Page verso
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, TO WIT: